indian noble prize winner

Nobel Prizes

courtesy:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_laureates_of_India

 British-Raj Citizens

 Ronald Ross

Main article: Ronald Ross

Ronald Ross, born in Almora, India, in 1857 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.

He received many honours in addition to the Nobel Prize, and was given Honorary Membership of learned societies of most countries of Europe, and of many other continents. He got an honorary M.D. degree in Stockholm in 1910 at the centenary celebration of the Caroline Institute. Whilst his vivacity and single-minded search for truth caused friction with some people, he enjoyed a vast circle of friends in Europe, Asia and America who respected him for his personality as well as for his genius.

 Rudyard Kipling

Main article: Rudyard Kipling
Citation :

Rudyard Kipling, born in Mumbai, 1865 (then Bombay in British India), was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1907. He remains the youngest ever recipient of the Literature Nobel Prize and the first English-language writer to receive the Prize.

Rabindranath Tagore

Main article: Rabindranath Tagore
Citation : “Because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”.

Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) was a poet, philosopher, educationist, artist and social activist. Hailing from an affluent land-owning family of Bengal, he received traditional education in India before traveling to England for further study. He abandoned his formal education and returned home, founding a school, Santiniketan, where children received an education in consonance with Tagore’s own ideas of communion with nature and emphasis on literature and the arts.

In time, Tagore’s works, written originally in Bengali, were translated into English; the Geetanjali (“Tribute in verse”), a compendium of verses, named ‘Song Offerings’ in English was widely acclaimed for its literary genius. In 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the first person of non-Western heritage to be awarded a Nobel Prize.[1]

In protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he resigned the knighthood that had been conferred upon him in 1915. Tagore holds the unique distinction of being the composer of the national anthems of two different countries, India and Bangladesh.

 Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

Main article: Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
Citation : “…for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (18881970) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1930. He had been knighted only the year before and worked extensively on acoustics and light. He was also deeply interested in the physiology of the human eye. A traditionally-dressed man, he headed an institute that is today named after him: the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. His nephew, the astrophysicist Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 as a United States citizen.

American Citizens of Indian Origin

 Hargobind Khorana

Main article: Hargobind Khorana
Citation : “…for their [Khorana’s, Robert W. Holley‘s and Marshall W. Nirenberg‘s] interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”.

Hargobind Khorana (born 1922), a person of Indian origin, shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on genes. He had left India in 1945 and became a naturalised United States citizen in the 1970s. He continues to head a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Main article: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Citation :

Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.

Venkatraman ‘Venki’ Ramakrishnan

Main article: Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Citation : ‘”for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”‘ [1]

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, born in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is now a US Citizen

 Indian Citizen of Foreign Origin

 Mother Teresa

Main article: Mother Teresa
Citation : None provided by the foundation on its website.

Mother Teresa (1910–1997) was born in Skopje, then a city in Ottoman Empire. She is of Albanian origin. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Toiling for years in the slums of Kolkata (Calcutta), her work centred on caring for the poor and suffering, among whom she herself died. “This year [1979] the world has turned its attention to the plight of children and refugees, and these are precisely the categories for whom Mother Teresa has for many years worked so selflessly.”[3]

 People of Indian Descent (Descendants of Modern-Era Immigrants)

V.S. Naipaul

Main article: V.S. Naipaul
Citation :

A British writer, V.S. Naipul (Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul) was born in 1932 into a family of north Indian descent living in Chaguanas, close to Port of Spain, on Trinidad. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001. In awarding him the Prize, the Swedish Academy praised his work “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.” The Nobel Committee added: “Naipaul is a modern philosopher, carrying on the tradition that started originally with Lettres persanes and Candide. In a vigilant style, which has been deservedly admired, he transforms rage into precision and allows events to speak with their own inherent irony.”

The Committee also noted Naipaul’s affinity with the Polish-born British author of Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad: “Naipaul is Conrad’s heir as the annalist of the destinies of empires in the moral sense: what they do to human beings. His authority as a narrator is grounded in the memory of what others have forgotten, the history of the vanquished.”

Foreign Citizens mainly residing in India

 Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama

Main article: Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama

Former Head of state of Tibet and active leader of Tibetan Resistance towards PRC. Escaped to India when the PRC took over Tibet. Although legally a citizen of Tibet and hence indirectly China, he is head of Tibetan Government in Exile which is stationed in India. He got Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for efforts for Tibetan Freedom through Non-Violence and Spreading Global Peace through Buddhism. Also during Prize Distribution, Head of Prize Committee commented that the prize was a part of tribute to memory of Mahatma Gandhi. Tenzin travels widely, in an effort to promote peaceful ideals.

 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics

 Citizens of India

 Amartya Sen

Main article: Amartya Sen
Citation: “…for his contributions to welfare economics”.

Amartya Sen (born 1933) was the first Indian to receive the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, awarded to him in 1998 for his work on welfare economics. He has made several key contributions to research in this field, such as to the axiomatic theory of social choice; the definitions of welfare and poverty indexes; and the empirical studies of famine. All are linked by his interest in distributional issues and particularly in those most impoverished[4]. Whereas Kenneth Arrow‘s “impossibility theorem” suggested that it was not possible to aggregate individual choices into a satisfactory choice for society as a whole, Sen showed that societies could find ways to alleviate such a poor outcome.

Nobel Prizes

 British-Raj Citizens

Ronald Ross

Ronald Ross, born in Almora, India, in 1857 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.

He received many honours in addition to the Nobel Prize, and was given Honorary Membership of learned societies of most countries of Europe, and of many other continents. He got an honorary M.D. degree in Stockholm in 1910 at the centenary celebration of the Caroline Institute. Whilst his vivacity and single-minded search for truth caused friction with some people, he enjoyed a vast circle of friends in Europe, Asia and America who respected him for his personality as well as for his genius.

 Rudyard Kipling

Citation :

Rudyard Kipling, born in Mumbai, 1865 (then Bombay in British India), was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1907. He remains the youngest ever recipient of the Literature Nobel Prize and the first English-language writer to receive the Prize.

 Rabindranath Tagore

Citation : “Because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”.

Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) was a poet, philosopher, educationist, artist and social activist. Hailing from an affluent land-owning family of Bengal, he received traditional education in India before traveling to England for further study. He abandoned his formal education and returned home, founding a school, Santiniketan, where children received an education in consonance with Tagore’s own ideas of communion with nature and emphasis on literature and the arts.

In time, Tagore’s works, written originally in Bengali, were translated into English; the Geetanjali (“Tribute in verse”), a compendium of verses, named ‘Song Offerings’ in English was widely acclaimed for its literary genius. In 1913, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was the first person of non-Western heritage to be awarded a Nobel Prize.[1]

In protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre, he resigned the knighthood that had been conferred upon him in 1915. Tagore holds the unique distinction of being the composer of the national anthems of two different countries, India and Bangladesh.

 Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

Citation : “…for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (18881970) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1930. He had been knighted only the year before and worked extensively on acoustics and light. He was also deeply interested in the physiology of the human eye. A traditionally-dressed man, he headed an institute that is today named after him: the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. His nephew, the astrophysicist Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983 as a United States citizen.

 American Citizens of Indian Origin

 Hargobind Khorana

Citation : “…for their [Khorana’s, Robert W. Holley‘s and Marshall W. Nirenberg‘s] interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”.

Hargobind Khorana (born 1922), a person of Indian origin, shared the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on genes. He had left India in 1945 and became a naturalised United States citizen in the 1970s. He continues to head a laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Citation :

Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.

 Venkatraman ‘Venki’ Ramakrishnan

Citation : ‘”for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”‘ [1]

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, born in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He is now a US Citizen

 Indian Citizen of Foreign Origin

 Mother Teresa

Citation : None provided by the foundation on its website.

Mother Teresa (1910–1997) was born in Skopje, then a city in Ottoman Empire. She is of Albanian origin. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Toiling for years in the slums of Kolkata (Calcutta), her work centred on caring for the poor and suffering, among whom she herself died. “This year [1979] the world has turned its attention to the plight of children and refugees, and these are precisely the categories for whom Mother Teresa has for many years worked so selflessly.”[3]

People of Indian Descent (Descendants of Modern-Era Immigrants)

 V.S. Naipaul

Citation :

A British writer, V.S. Naipul (Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul) was born in 1932 into a family of north Indian descent living in Chaguanas, close to Port of Spain, on Trinidad. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001. In awarding him the Prize, the Swedish Academy praised his work “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.” The Nobel Committee added: “Naipaul is a modern philosopher, carrying on the tradition that started originally with Lettres persanes and Candide. In a vigilant style, which has been deservedly admired, he transforms rage into precision and allows events to speak with their own inherent irony.”

The Committee also noted Naipaul’s affinity with the Polish-born British author of Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad: “Naipaul is Conrad’s heir as the annalist of the destinies of empires in the moral sense: what they do to human beings. His authority as a narrator is grounded in the memory of what others have forgotten, the history of the vanquished.”

Foreign Citizens mainly residing in India

 Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama

Former Head of state of Tibet and active leader of Tibetan Resistance towards PRC. Escaped to India when the PRC took over Tibet. Although legally a citizen of Tibet and hence indirectly China, he is head of Tibetan Government in Exile which is stationed in India. He got Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for efforts for Tibetan Freedom through Non-Violence and Spreading Global Peace through Buddhism. Also during Prize Distribution, Head of Prize Committee commented that the prize was a part of tribute to memory of Mahatma Gandhi. Tenzin travels widely, in an effort to promote peaceful ideals.

 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics

 Citizens of India

 Amartya Sen

Citation: “…for his contributions to welfare economics”.

Amartya Sen (born 1933) was the first Indian to receive the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, awarded to him in 1998 for his work on welfare economics. He has made several key contributions to research in this field, such as to the axiomatic theory of social choice; the definitions of welfare and poverty indexes; and the empirical studies of famine. All are linked by his interest in distributional issues and particularly in those most impoverished[4]. Whereas Kenneth Arrow‘s “impossibility theorem” suggested that it was not possible to aggregate individual choices into a satisfactory choice for society as a whole, Sen showed that societies could find ways to alleviate such a poor outcome.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: